Welcome to the 2022-23 Tax Rates.
We've included last years' rates for comparison.
|Personal Allowance (PA)*||£12,570||£12,570|
|Blind Person's Allowance||2,600||2,520|
|Rent a room relief**||7,500||7,500|
*PA is withdrawn at £1 for every £2 by which ‘adjusted income’ exceeds £100,000. There is no allowance given above £125,140.
†The part of the PA that is transferable to a spouse or civil partner who is not a higher or additional rate taxpayer.
** If gross income exceeds it, the limit may be deducted instead of actual expenses.
|Basic Rate Band (BRB)||£37,700||£37,700|
|Higher Rate Band (HRB)||37,701 – 150,000||37,701 – 150,000|
|Additional rate||over 150,000||over 150,000|
|Personal Savings Allowance (PSA)|
|– Basic rate taxpayer||1,000||1,000|
|– Higher rate taxpayer||500||500|
|Dividend Allowance (DA)||2,000||2,000|
BRB and additional rate threshold are increased by personal pension contributions (up to permitted limit) and Gift Aid donations.
|Rates differ for General, Savings and Dividend income within each band:|
General income (salary, pensions, business profits, rent) usually uses personal allowance, basic rate and higher rate bands before savings income (interest). Scottish taxpayers are taxed at different rates on general income (see below).
To the extent that savings income falls in the first £5,000 of the basic rate band, it is taxed at nil rather than 20%.
The PSA taxes interest at nil, where it would otherwise be taxable at 20% or 40%.
Dividends are normally taxed as the ‘top slice’ of income. The DA taxes the first £2,000 of dividend income at nil, rather than the rate that would otherwise apply.
|Income tax – Scotland||2021/22||2020/21|
|Basic rate||20%||2,098 – 12,726||2,098 – 12,726|
|Intermediate rate||21%||12,727 – 31,092||12,727 – 31,092|
|Higher rate||41%||31,093 – 150,000||31,093 – 150,000|
|Top rate||46%||over 150,000||150,000|
The Scottish rates and bands do not apply for savings and dividend income, which are taxed at normal UK rates. The Scottish rates for 2022/23 have not yet been announced.
High Income Child Benefit Charge (HICBC)
1% of child benefit for each £100 of adjusted net income between £50,000 and £60,000.
|Remittance basis charge||2022/23||2021/22|
|For non-UK domiciled individuals who have been
UK resident in at least:
|7 of the preceding 9 tax years||£30,000||£30,000|
|12 of the preceding 14 tax years||60,000||60,000|
|15 of the preceding 20 tax years||Deemed to be UK domiciled|
|Lifetime Allowance (LA)||£1,073,100||£1,073,100|
|Annual Allowance (AA)*||40,000||40,000|
Annual relievable pension inputs are the higher of earnings (capped at AA) or £3,600.
*Usually tapered down, to a minimum of £4,000, when adjusted income exceeds £240,000.
|State pension (per week)||2022/23||2021/22|
|Old state pension||£141.85||£137.60|
|New state pension†||185.15||179.60|
†Applies to those reaching state retirement age after 5 April 2016.
Annual investment limits
|Individual Savings Account (ISA)|
|– Overall limit||£20,000||£20,000|
|– Lifetime ISA||4,000||4,000|
|EIS – 30% relief||2,000,000||2,000,000|
|Seed EIS (SEIS) – 50% relief||100,000||100,000|
|Venture Capital Trust (VCT) – 30% relief||200,000||200,000|
National Insurance Contributions
Class 1 (Employees)
|Main NIC rate||13.25%||15.05%|
|No NIC on first||£190pw||£175pw|
|Main rate charged up to*||£967pw||no limit|
|2% rate on earnings above||£967pw||N/A|
|Employment allowance per business**||N/A||£4,000|
*Nil rate of employer NIC on earnings up to £967pw for employees aged under 21, apprentices aged under 25 and ex-armed forces personnel in their first twelve months of civilian employment.
**Some businesses do not qualify, including certain sole director companies and employers who have an employer’s Class 1 NIC liability of £100,000 or more for 2021/22.
Employer contributions (at 15.05%) are also due on most taxable benefits (Class 1A) and on tax paid on an employee’s behalf under a PAYE settlement agreement (Class 1B).
Class 2 (Self employed)
|Flat rate per week||£3.15|
|Small profits threshold||£6,725|
Class 3 (Voluntary)
|Class 3: Flat rate per week||£15.85|
Class 4 (Self employed)
|On profits £9,880 – £50,270||10.25%|
|On profits over £50,270||3.25%|
Taxable benefit: List price of car multiplied by chargeable percentage.
|2022/23||2021/22 percentage for petrol cars first registered|
|1-50||70 - 129||5||5||4|
|1-50||40 - 69||8||8||7|
|1-50||30 - 39||12||12||11|
Then a further 1% for each 5g/km CO2 emissions, up to a maximum of 37%.
Diesel cars that are not RDE2 standard suffer a 4% supplement on the above figures but are still capped at 37%.
Chargeable value of £3,600 (2021/22: £3,500) if private use is more than home-to-work. Zero-emission vans charged at £Nil (2021/22: £Nil).
Employer provides fuel for private motoring in an employer-owned:
Car: CO2-based percentage from above table multiplied by £25,300 (2021/22: £24,600).
Van: £688 (2021/22: £669).
Employee contributions do not reduce taxable figure unless all private fuel is paid for by the employee (in which case there is no benefit charge).
Tax-free mileage allowances
|Employee's own transport||per business mile|
|Cars first 10,000 miles||45p|
|Cars over 10,000 miles||25p|
Capital Gains Tax
|Annual exemption amount|
|Individual (to basic rate limit)*||10%||10%|
|Individual (above basic rate limit)*||20%||20%|
|Business Asset Disposal Relief (BADR)**||10%||10%|
|Investors’ Relief (IR)***||10%||10%|
*Individuals are taxed at 18%/28% on gains on residential property and receipts of carried interest. Trusts and estates are taxed at 28% in these circumstances.
**BADR is available on qualifying gains of up to £1m.
***Shares in an unquoted trading company may qualify on lifetime gains up to £10m.
|Corporation Tax rate||19%||19%|
|Research and development relief|
|SME enhanced expenditure
|Large company R&D Expenditure
Credit (RDEC) scheme**
*Additional deduction for qualifying R&D
**Taxable expenditure credit for qualifying R&D
SMEs that make losses can surrender the deduction to HMRC in exchange for a payment of 14.5% of the loss (capped at £20,000 plus 3 x PAYE & NIC for periods beginning from 1.4.21).
Main capital allowances
|Plant and machinery allowances||Rate|
|Expenditure 1.4.21 - 31.3.23 (companies only)|
|– Super-deduction (main pool expenditure)||130%|
|– First-year allowance (special rate pool expenditure)||50%|
|Annual Investment Allowance (AIA)|
|– expenditure 1.1.19 - 31.3.23 of up to||£1,000,000||100%|
|New electric vans||100%|
|Writing down allowance: general pool (reducing balance)||18%|
|Writing down allowance: special rate pool (reducing balance)*||6%|
|Motor cars purchased|
|1.4.18 to 31.3.21
|New cars only||Nil||up to 50||100%|
|In general pool||up to 50||up to 110||18%|
|In special rate pool||above 50||above 110||6%|
|Structures and buildings allowance|
|Fixed deduction per annum||3%|
Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings (ATED)
ATED applies to ‘high value’ residential properties owned via a corporate structure, unless the property is used for a qualifying purpose. The tax applies to properties valued at more than £500,000.
|Property value||Annual charge to|
|£0.5m - £1m||£3,800||£3,700|
|£1m - £2m||7,700||7,500|
|£2m – £5m||26,050||25,300|
|£5m – £10m||60,900||59,100|
|£10m – £20m||122,250||118,600|
Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT), Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) and Land Transaction Tax (LTT) from 1 April 2021
The Scottish and Welsh authorities have not yet announced the rates of LBTT and LTT for 2022/23.
|Residential property (1st property only)|
|SDLT - England & NI
|Rate||LBTT - Scotland
|Rate||LTT - Wales
|Up to 125||Nil||Up to 145||Nil||Up to 180||Nil|
|125 - 250||2%||145 – 250||2%||180 – 250||3.5%|
|250 – 925||5%||250– 325||5%||250 – 400||5.0%|
|925 – 1,500||10%||325 – 750||10%||400 – 750||7.5%|
|Over 1,500||12%||Over 750||12%||750 – 1,500||10.0%|
A supplement applies for all three taxes where an additional residential property is purchased for more than £40,000 (unless replacing a main residence). It is also payable by all corporate purchasers. The rate is 3% (LBTT and LTT: 4%) of the total purchase price.
– First-time buyers purchasing a property of up to £500,000 pay a nil rate on the first £300,000 of the purchase price.
- A 2% supplement applies where the property is bought by a non-UK resident.
– A rate of 15% may apply to the total purchase price, where the property is valued above £500,000 and purchased by a ‘non-natural person’ (e.g. a company).
For LBTT, first-time buyer relief increases the nil rate band to £175,000.
|Non-residential or mixed use property|
|SDLT - England & NI
|Rate||LBTT - Scotland
|Rate||LTT - Wales
|Up to 150||Nil||Up to 150||Nil||Up to 225||Nil|
|150 – 250||2%||150 – 250||1%||225 – 250||1%|
|Over 250||5%||Over 250||5%||250 – 1,000||5%|
Value Added Tax
|Standard rate (1/6 of VAT-inclusive price)||20%|
|Tourism and hospitality sector reduced rate|
|– from 1.10.21-31.3.22||12.5%|
|Registration level - Taxable turnover||£85,000 per annum|
|Deregistration level - Taxable turnover||83,000 per annum|
Flat Rate Scheme (FRS)
|Annual taxable turnover to enter scheme||Up to £150,000|
|Must leave scheme if annual gross turnover||Exceeds £230,000|
If using FRS, the VAT paid by the business is a fixed percentage (based on business category) of 'FRS turnover' rather than the net of output tax over input tax. Input tax is usually not recoverable.
Cash accounting and Annual accounting schemes
|Annual taxable turnover to enter scheme||Up to £1.35m|
|Must leave scheme if annual taxable turnover||Exceeds £1.60m|
|Nil rate band (NRB)*||£325,000||£325,000|
|NRB Residential enhancement (RNRB)†*||175,000||175,000|
|Tax rate on death**||40%||40%|
|Tax rate on lifetime transfers to most trusts||20%||20%|
*Up to 100% of the proportion of a deceased spouse’s/civil partner’s unused NRB and RNRB band may be claimed to increment the current NRB and RNRB when the survivor dies.
†RNRB is available for transfers of a main residence to (broadly) direct descendents. It tapers away at the rate of £1 for every £2 of estate value above £2m.
**Rate reduced to 36% if at least 10% of the relevant estate is left to charity. Unlimited exemption for transfers between spouses/civil partners, except if UK domiciled transferor and foreign domiciled transferee, where maximum exemption £325,000.
100% Business Property Relief (BPR) for all shareholdings in qualifying unquoted trading companies, qualifying unincorporated trading businesses and certain farmland/buildings.
Reduced tax charge on gifts within 7 years before death
|Years before death||0-3||3-4||4-5||5-6||6-7|
|% of full death tax charge payable||100||80||60||40||20|
Annual exemptions for lifetime gifts include £3,000 per donor and £250 per recipient.